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Believing is Living

Patrick: The saint who knew what it was like to be a slave

Washington D.C., Mar 17, 2019 / 04:04 am (CNA). – Among the most popular saints today, Saint Patrick was a bishop and missionary to Ireland. But in addition, he spent several years as a slave, and once issued a heartfelt plea on behalf of both girls and boys … […]

“Who Hath Ears to Hear, Let Him Hear” #BCCSundaySchool2019

Readings: Matthew 13; Luke 8-13

The Gospel authors, in their brains, left most of these parables as receptive narratives to be able to tempt us to engagement together. Each reader will hear a distinct message and might find that the same parable leaves several opinions over the years…. Reducing parables into a single meaning destroys their aesthetic in addition to moral potential. This surplus of significance is the way poetry and storytelling function, and it’s all to the good. ”

–Amy-Jill Levine, Short Stories by Jesus

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This week we launch in the Kingdom Parables–those short narratives where Jesus tries to eff the ineffable and provide ordinary mortals a frame of reference to speaking about the Kingdom of God. This is beyond a tough market. The Kingdom that Jesus spent the majority of his ministry talking about is the earthly kingdom, but it’s like no earthly realm which has ever been around, and its governing logic is totally foreign to normal humankind.

But we must watch this to be it, so Jesus tells us about the components –similar to the blind men describing the elephant at the famous poem from John Godfrey Saxe. Like a mustard seed, the Kingdom begins little and becomes a place of refuge; such as a fishing net, it pulls in everyone and yells back what it can not keep; like a great treasure, a person who knows about it’s going to be ready to sacrifice everything to receive it. And so on. All of these are incomplete and imperfect, but each one of them contributes something to this film, and, if we add them all up, we may have the ability to imagine the entire elephant.

The parables, then, are instructing tools, right? Illustrative stories that Jesus uses to make difficult things simpler to understand. Right?

But that is not what Jesus says in Matthew 13. In Reality, in one of those temptations that I have struggled with for much of my own life, the disciples ask Jesus why he speaks in parables, and he says:

And the disciples came, and said unto him, Why speakest thou unto them in parables? He replied and said unto them, Because it is given unto you to understand the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven, but to them it isn’t given. For whosoever hath, to him shall be given, and he shall have more abundance: but whosoever hath not, from him will be taken away even that he hath.Therefore speak I to them in parables: because they seeing see notand hearing they hear not, neither do they know. And in them is fulfilled the prophecy of Esaias, which saith, By hearing ye shall hear, and shall not understand; and seeing ye shall find, and shall not perceive: (Matt. 13:10-14)

So that clears up things. The entire purpose of using parables is to make certain people have a more difficult time understanding that the concept because, for whatever reason, Jesus seemingly wants the people he’s instructing to not have any idea what he’s talking about. Plausible deniability maybe? Or a key code to the righteous?

It was not until I read Amy-Jill Levine’s epicly amazing book Short Stories from Jesus that I have a sense of the answer to this question. From the introduction to this book, which is quoted in the epigraph, Levine explains that the entire purpose of parables on earth of the New Testament is to educate in a way that instills simple efforts to repair the meaning of the lesson. Parables are not supposed to mean only 1 thing. A parable provides us infinite interpretive possibilities–without which one could never attempt an expression of something as hard to define as the Kingdom of God.

Let’s just look at one example–maybe not the longest or most famous parable in Matthew 13, one whose significance splashes around and rolls enough other parables to ensure it is a very really fantastic way to start a discussion of how to read them all. In Matthew 13:33, Jesus says,

The kingdom of heaven is like unto leaven, which a woman took, and hid in three measures of meal, till the whole was leavened.

So that’s the Kingdom of Heaven for you. Yeast. A smelly little chemical agent that interacts with the flour and leaves the break bloated. However, like leaven, this parable extends to satisfy a good deal of space. Here are four unique ways that we can consider the Kingdom of Heaven in terms of leaven. All these are neither exhaustive nor always compatible with one another. But they each name part of this Large, bready, yeasty elephant that we are attempting to specify:

Interpretation: 1: The Kingdom of Heaven Makes Everything Better
The very first, and undoubtedly the most frequent interpretation of the Parable is that, like leaven, people that consciously work to make the Kingdom make the whole world better. They are agents of change who interact with plain old flour to lift it up and allow it to be better than it ever knew it might be. This resonates with Jesus’s statement in the Sermon on the Mount that the Chosen People must be”the salt of the earth” and”the light of earth.” Leaven functions in much the same way. It does very little for itself and quite a lot for everything it touches.

This interpretation of this parable really interacts with lots of the other parables in Matthew 13 and changes how we read . It is necessary that the woman in the parable does not only use leaven; she hides it, in much the exact identical way that the fantastic treasure hidden in the field (13:44). However, the leaven is not buried; it is hidden in plain sight since, until it’s cooked, the leaven (that is really something nearer to sourdough starter than the packets of yellow yeast we all know and love) looks like the dough. And making it kind of just similar to the wheat among the tares (13:24-30) and the good fish among the terrible ones (13:47-48).

In all 3 instances –wheat/tares, excellent fish/bad fish, along with leaven/dough–something good is concealed among other things which look just like that. However, the leaven parable works differently compared to another two. Even the tares are burned in a furnace along with the unwelcome fish are thrown back in the ocean (which is arguably the greater fate). The allegories definitely separate the”good,” who are spared, from the”poor,” that are cast away.

But leaven doesn’t work like that. There is no point at which the leaven is separated from the dough and stored while the rest of the dough has been thrown away. And who’d want that? Yeast does not taste good alone. The leaven blends with the dough in a way that cannot be undone, and it really changes the chemical composition of the whole mixture. It makes the bread better by becoming a part of it, also by the end of the procedure, there’s no longer”leaven” and”flour,” there is just excellent bread that’s been made by the action of this leaven.

And that, perhaps, is the way to build the Kingdom of Heaven.

Interpretation 2: The Kingdom of Heaven Is Rich and Generous
The easiest means to misread this parable would be to presume that”three measures” of flour is something similar to”three cups” It’s much, much more. Even the NIV actually eliminates the chance of making this error by copying”three steps” into its modern equivalent of”roughly 60 lbs.” This is the type of thing that everyone in Jesus’s audience would have known but that most of us overlook: the woman was making a great deal of bread.

And we can not discount the simple fact that Jesus gives this very particular amount here–it needs to be significant. Otherwise he could have only said that the girl was making bread. But she had been making 60 lbs of bread–far greater than their family members could have eaten before it spoiled. She had been making bread for some different men and women. And she had been making them the great stuff. Leaven isn’t needed for bread (unleavened bread was really a big thing back then). She had been giving her time and her talents to nourish different individuals in a way that strongly implies luxury, abundance, as well as generosity. Can the Kingdom of God be all these things too?

Interpretation 3: The Kingdom of Heaven Is Not Uptight about Stuff
It ended up being a necessity for Second Temple Jews to remove all leaven from their houses during Passover and eat only unleavened bread. Leavened bread was not sinful or anything. You can eat it in the past season. Nevertheless, it wasn’t as great, ritually speaking, because the flat, dull cracker-like stuff which you were supposed to eat at Passover. A part of this audience might reasonably have anticipated Jesus, when he was going to say that the Kingdom of God was such as bread, to mention that it was like unleavened bread.

So maybe this is (too ) the purpose. Perhaps Jesus was saying that the Kingdom of God is like something that is not part of the strict, ritualistic, regulatory components of a religion–but the joyous, abundant, and celebratory part. This would surely be harmonious with the rest of Jesus’s ministry, in which he insists that things such as sacrifices, sabbath observance, and inflexible adherence to a dietary code wouldn’t construct the Kingdom. Neither would the Word of Wisdom, the Law of Chastity, also committing tithing–all things which could reasonably be called the unleavened breads of the faith.

Maybe the Kingdom functions on different principles than we think it will. Perhaps God is not as worried about most that material than we are. And possibly the pearls of amazing price are for something other than clutching.

Interpretation 4: The Kingdom of Heaven Isn’t a Gendered Space
It’s not an injury that the Parable of the Leaven follows directly in the Parable of the Mustard Seed. Both parables have a very similar assortment of meanings, but the stem from two different spheres. Mustard seeds and mustard plants are part of those (for now ) very male sphere of work and agriculture. Leaven and bread originated in the (for the time) very feminine world of preparing meals and sustaining family. The two viewpoints are given equal weight and equal importance. It’s possible that they have to be combined with each other to understand what Jesus is really describing.

And this is the stage. Maybe why both of these tales occur in parallel is nothing about the Kingdom of Heaven could be explained from a single, gendered cultural world because dividing up the world into gendered cultural spheres is that the logic of earth rather than the logic of the Kingdom. Maybe human beings that are working to build the Kingdom need to step out of these spheres and be completely human. And maybe, just possibly, sex is much less endless as we all like to trust.

And perhaps I am wrong about what. I am certainly not inclusively accurate. It might be just as silly to say that a parable means just four things as to state that it signifies only one. The array of translation for all of Jesus’s parables is infinite–because the thing they’re attempting to describe is boundless. Along with”having ears to hear” means something more than just being vaguely spiritually in song. “Having ears” means being willing to do the difficult work to examine, re-read, research, and interpret the multitudes of things which thee marvelous stories mean.

Guest Article: Guelphs and Gibellines Revisited


Charles A. Coulombe

“There is no Christian prince left. These other countries are even as Britain, or sunk deeper in the disease.”

“Then we must go higher. We must go to him whose office it would be to place down tyrants and give life to dying kingdoms. We must call on the Emperor.”

“There is no Emperor.”

–C.S. Lewis, That Hideous Strength

Old guard looks to new generation of voices on nuclear disarmament

The need for Catholics in particular to participate in the nuclear disarmament discussion is as crucial as it’s been over three decades due to the recent announcement by both Russia and also U.S. to withdraw from the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces treaty.

Cardinal Barbarin’s Sexual Abuse Cover-Up Conviction Raises Thorny Questions

By Solène Tadié | VATICAN CITY — The conviction of French Cardinal Philippe Barbarin, the archbishop of Lyon and primate of the Gauls, for failing to report sexual abuse committed by one of his…

Suffering Accompanies a Foolish Church

If nothing else, the pontificate of Pope John XXIII was positive in mindset. If asked why he called the Second Vatican Council, John supposedly  responded, “I want to throw open the walls of the Church in order that we can watch out and the folks may see . ” In his opening address for the Council, he derided critics who maintained a moral crisis was brewing, calling them “prophets of doom, who are always forecasting worse disasters, as though the end of the world were in hand. ” Pope John XXIII’s optimism was embedded in Vatican II’s mission: to successfully attract the Church to the contemporary world — that is, to open these Church windows and allow the holy incense mingle with the new beachfront atmosphere, a profound marriage of jealousy and fecundity.

Pope John XXIII never saw the completion of his council. A progressive Catholic might say he was like the medieval cathedral-builders focusing on a glorious achievement, without the potential for seeing the conclusion. This can be how culture advances. The garden is tended. The flea is planted. Its fruits are chosen by future generations.

Sometimes, however, the fruit afforded is purulent and rotten.

The veggies of Vatican II were sour for the Catholic Church. Many conjecture that it aided and abetted that an execrable infiltration inside the Church. Perhaps John XXIII must have listened to the prophets of despair more carefully. Opening windows when filthy smoke lingers outside can be deadly.

Now, I am tempted to give a rundown of this outrages and foolishness seen since Vatican II, finish with dwindling amounts on vocations and Mass attendance and increasing numbers on misuse convictions and compensation payouts. An individual may throw into a rant about stone; polka; man; and, worst of World Youth Day Masses. Rather, I will attempt to put real faces to the impact the article –Vatican II Church is currently having on the planet, especially young people.

As a teacher that I believe my experience on the job. The Church is nonexistent in my public school. The pupils haven’t heard of what a bishop or pope is. Their knowledge of priests stems only from primitive jokes by comedians. They do know about nuns, thanks to some recent horror film. I have only two students who attend a weekly form of church support. The rest chiefly attend Sunday-morning baseball worship or stay home to play with murderous videogames. If a pupil does have a relative who is religious, then the pupil might know of Jesus, but definitely not Who Jesus is (I once had an eleven-year-old pupil inquire if Christmas had been the day Jesus died on the cross). In my experience, the Catholic Church is totally and completely irrelevant to the pupils I teach and also to modern education at large.

Can I mistake the world of public instruction? What would the modern Catholic Church provide my students? Shall I teach them how to effectively plagiarize when composing essays? Or should I deliver math lessons at which 2+2=5? “But instructor,” a pupil may ask, “describe to me how 2+2=5! ” For this I would respond: “Tsk tsk, Johnny. Let’s not go down that bunny hole. ” Maybe the Church would instruct us in science class how to construct bridges on defective foundations, or how to reduce sensed banner ads for home economics. When there was one spot where the contemporary Catholic Church along with also the public school systems could wholeheartedly disagree, it would be in condemning artificial climate change. It’s been stated of climate alter that “[d]oomsday predications could no more be fulfilled with irony or disdain. ” John XXIII, fulfill the prophet of despair: Francis. I am certain that the Church and schools would happily join forces from deriding plastic straw–consumers, who undeniably suck. Nevertheless, with the exclusion of polystyrene policies, the contemporary Catholic Church comes across as foolish and lacking credibility in the public classroom.

The absence of a competent visible Church is not to be dismissed, for it’s a lack of true light and hope. In seven decades of teaching, I have educated many fantastic children. I also have noticed more than my fair share of sufferings. I see pupil ’s lives ravaged from the divorce of Mother and Dad. I see frequent school lockdowns for fear that certain students could be abducted. Indeed, to be a teacher is to be on a first-name foundation together with the local police department. I had a nine-year-old pupil captured sending improper selfies to friends. I’d a ten-year-old pupil effort suicide. Shockingly, I’d a seven-year-old student effort suicide. I even had two of my students murdered. I’ve dried tears from shattered children than you could possibly know. It’s a broken planet — one which pines for a saviour, of whom the lips of children made sweet hosannas ring. These kids are damaging, but they do not know where to locate hope. A strong visible Church is not at hand to guide them.

The burdens my students encounter affirm the unfortunate fact: When the Church remains feeble, idiotic, and lacking in leadership, the entire world suffers with it. Really, when the Catholic Church fails to emphasise Christ crucified, the crucifixes are removed from public partitions. When crucifixes are removed from public college partitions, the cross of distress is put on our children.  The foolishness of this visible Church has accompanied the modern world into a chasm of anguish perhaps never before seen, with children bearing the burden.

I wish I could be the optimist, such as John XXIII, and say everything will be fantastic. This would be false. Christ will get the last victory, but many souls might be lost in the procedure. However, from the ashes, there is expectation that a smaller Catholic Church, possibly stirred through an extraordinary Mass, will take the torch forward. Finally, Catholics will need to be like the contractors of cathedrals, functioning on a renewal without anticipation of viewing the result, together with cathedrals built on solid rock rather than recycled plastic straws. Already there has been much too much discomfort brought on by foolishness.

The article Suffering Accompanies a Foolish Church appeared on OnePeterFive.

Pope Francis calls for ‘gestures of peace’ in wake of mosque attacks

Vatican City, Mar 17, 2019 / / 06:15 am (CNA). – Pope Francis known for expressions of peace to oppose violence and hatred Sunday in the aftermath of strikes on two mosques in New Zealand.

“To the grief for the wars and the battles that continue to afflict humanity, we have added that to the victims of this horrible assault on two mosques in Christchurch, New Zealand,” Pope Francis stated March 17.

The pope requested all gathered in St. Peter’s Square for the Sunday Angelus prayer to join in a moment of silent prayer for “our Muslim allies ” that had been killed in New Zealand, also said he is going to continue to plead the dead, the wounded, as well as their loved ones. A number of 50 individuals were killed in Friday’so shooting, and 34 of those wounded stay in Christchurch Hospital.

Determined by the necessity and meaning of suffering, the pope said, “every one of us has his own crossover. The Lord shows us in the conclusion of our journey which will be the Resurrection — the beauty of carrying out our own crossover. ”

“The Transfiguration of Christ shows us that the Christian perspective of suffering,” Pope Francis explained. “It is a necessary, but transitory passing. ”

“By showing his glory, Jesus assures us the cross, the trials, the difficulties in which we battle have their solution and will be overcome in Easter,” he explained.

The pope explained that in Christ’so called Transfiguration, Jesus awarded his disciples Peter, James, and John that a foretaste of the Resurrection shortly before his crucifixion.

“Jesus knew they would not accept this reality – the fact of the cross, the truth of Jesus’ death,” Francis explained. “And so he wishes to prepare to bear the scandal of the passion and death of the cross, so that they will know that this is the way whereby the Heavenly Father will bring his Son into glory, lifting him from the dead. ”

“And this will also be the route of the disciples: nobody comes into eternal life except for subsequent Jesus, bringing his personal cross into earthly life,” he included.

Pope Francis urged taking more time for prayer and moments of recollection through the Lenten season to allow Christ’so “light to pervade and radiate in our lives. ”

Throughout “prayer in Christ and in the Holy Spirit” a individual could be transformed from within and “can illumine others and the neighboring world,” he explained.

“The Virgin Mary instructs us to stay with Jesus even if we don’t understand Him and don’t understand His ways. Because only by staying with Him will we find his glory,” Pope Francis said.


Lent is a good time to tackle the challenge of forgiveness

Daily Lenten Reflections: Memories are treasures in our later years. We often sit and sort through them, like the nursery-rhyme King of Hearts in his counting house. Some of them bring a tear or two to our eyes because we hit back to get something or somebody who’s currently beyond our grasp. 

William Lane Craig debates James Crossley on the resurrection of Jesus

two horses combat out it may the best horse win!

This is my favorite debate on the revival.

You can see the debate here:

The MP3 file can be gotten in Apologetics 315.

There is not much snark inside this short article, because Crossley is a solid scholar, and very honest with all the proof.


William Lane Craig’s opening speech

Two contentions:

  • There aren’t any nominal facts which are accepted by most historians
  • The best explanation for this four minimal truth is that God raised Jesus from the dead

Contention 1 of 2:

Truth 1: The burial

  • The burial is multiply attested
    • The burial is based on the ancient source material that Mark utilized for his gospel
    • Scholars date that Markan source to over 10 Decades of this crucifixion
    • The burial is also in the first departure in 1 Cor 15:3-8
    • So you have 5 sources, some of which Are Extremely ancient
  • The burial is imputed to your member of the Sanhedrin
    • the burial is most probable because reveals an enemy of the church doing
    • making it unlikely to be an innovation

Fact 2: The empty tomb

  • The burial story supports the vacant tomb
    • the site of Jesus’ tomb was known
    • the disciples could not proclaim a resurrection if the body were still inside
    • that the antagonists into the early Christians could have generated the body
  • The empty tomb would be multiple attested
    • it’s mentioned in Mark
    • it’s in the separate sources used by Matthew and John
    • it’s at the early sermons documented in Acts
    • it’s implied by 1 Cor 15:3-8, since resurrection requires that the human body is lacking
  • The empty tomb was discovered by women
    • the testimony of girls of girls Wasn’t normally permitted in courts of law
    • when this narrative was being composed, they would have selected male boomers
  • The empty tomb discover lacks mythical embellishment
    • there Is Not Any theological or apologetical expression on the meaning of the grave
  • The early Jewish response implies that the grave was empty
    • the answer was that the disciples stole the body
    • that requires the grave was discovered empty

Truth 3: The looks to individuals and groups, a few of them hostile

  • The set of looks is at 1 Cor 15:3-8
    • this substance is extremely ancient, withing 1-3 years following the crossover
    • James, the brother of Jesus, wasn’t a believer after he obtained his appearance
    • Paul was hostile to the early church after he obtained his look
  • Particular looks are multiply attested
    • Peter: attested by Luke and Paul
    • The twelve: attested by Luke, John and Paul
    • The women: exemplified by Matthew and John

Truth 4: The first belief in the revival emerged in an environment that was hostile

  • There wasn’t any background notion at a dying Messiah
  • There wasn’t any background belief in a single person resurrecting ahead of the general resurrection of all of the righteous at the end of the era
  • The Turks were willing to die for their belief in the resurrection of Jesus
  • The revival is the best explanation for the transformation of their disciples from frightened to reckless of departure

Contention 2 :

  • The resurrection is the best excuse as It moves C.B. McCullough’s six tests for historic explanations
  • Not one of those naturalistic explanations account for the minimal facts in Addition to the resurrection

James Crossley’s opening address

Appeals to Most scholars doesn’t prove anything

  • The majority of people in the west are still Muslims so of course there are a Vast Majority of scholars that support the revival
  • that there are Christian colleges in which refusal of the resurrection can Lead to termination

The Greatest historical sources (1 Cor 15:3-8 and Mark) aren’t that great

1 Cor 15:3-8 doesn’t support the empty tomb

  • Suggestion 4 probably does imply a bodily resurrection
  • the passing does possess eyewitnesses to looks of Jesus
  • but there are no eyewitnesses to the vacant tomb Inside This source
  • appearances occur in other civilizations in different times and locations
  • Jesus seen himself as a martyr
  • his followers may have had hallucinations

Mark 16:1-8

  • Mark is dated to the late 30s and early 40s
  • The girls who discover the tomb tell nobody about the empty tomb

The gospels reveal signs of having things added to them

  • Jewish narrative telling practices allowed the teller to make things up to boost their protagonist
  • one instance of this would be the story of the earthquake and the folks coming out of their graves
  • that story isn’t at Mark, nor some outside sources like Josephus
  • if there actually was a mass resurrection, in which are these people now?
  • So this passage in Matthew obviously demonstrates that at least some parts of the New Testament may call
  • concerning the contradiction between the women tell NO ONE and yet other people appear at the empty tomb
  • the narrative about Jesus commissioning the ancient church to evangelize Gentiles was likely added
  • there are also discrepancies in the timing of events and looks
  • why are there explicit statements of high Christology in John, but not at the earlier sources?

William Lane Craig’s rebuttal

Crossley’s answer to this burial: he accepts it

Crossley’s answer to the vacant tomb: he thinks it was composed

  • Rabbinical tales Aren’t comparable to this gospel accounts
  • the rabbinical stories Are Only anecdotal creative story-telling
  • that the gospels are ancient biographies – the genre is completely distinct
  • the rabbinic miracle tales are listed substantially later than the gospels
  • the rabbi’s moral and legal ideas were written down right away
  • the miracle stories were written down a century or two later
  • compared to the miracle stories about Jesus are at the earliest sources, such as Mark
  • that the rabbinical stories are meant for entertainment, not history
  • that the gospels are thought as biography
  • just because there are several legendary/apocalyptic elements in Matthew, it doesn’t undermine things like the crucfixion which are historically true

Crossley’s answer to this signs for the empty tomb:

  • No Answer to the burial
  • the empty tomb Cannot Be made up, it was implied by Paul early
  • the girls wouldn’t have said nothing forever – they finally talked later they arrived into where the disciples were
  • no response to the lack of embellishment
  • no Answer to the ancient Jewish polemic

Crossley’s response to the appearances

  • He insists the first followers of Jesus had experiences where they believed Jesus was still alive

Crossley’s response to the ancient belief in the bodily resurrection:

  • No response about how this belief in a revival could have emerged in the absence of background belief at the death of the Messiah and the revival of one man prior to the general resurrection of All of the righteous at the end of the age

What about Crossley’s hallucination concept?

  • Crossley States the followers of Jesus had dreams, and they translated these dreams against the story of the Maccabean martyrs who looked forward to their resurrections
  • however the hallucination theory doesn’t account for the empty tomb
  • and the Maccabean martyrs were not expecting the resurrection of one guy, and clearly not the Messiah – so that narrative doesn’t supply the Perfect background notion for a hallucination of one resurrected person Before the end of the age
  • if the looks were non-physical, the disciples would not have implemented the term revival – it would just happen to be an eyesight
  • the dreams could easily be reconciled with the idea that somehow God had been pleased with Jesus and He Had any glorified/vindicated non-corporeal presence – although perhaps not resurrection
  • not only that, the hallucination theory doesn’t actually explain the dreams, because there were visions to groups, to skeptics and to enemies in a Number of places

What about the debate that just Christians accept the resurrection?

  • It’s ’s an ad hominem attack that averts the discussions

James Crossley’s rebuttal

About the burial:

  • I might be convinced of that the burial account is accurate

About the non-expectation of a suffering/dying Messiah:

  • Jesus believed he was likely to expire
  • this believing he was about to die overturned all previous Messianic expectations that the Messiah wouldn’t suffer or die
  • the ancient Jews could readily reconcile the Thought of a suffering, deceased guy murdered by the Romans with all the Ability of the all-powerful Messiah who supposed to reign forever
  • no actually bodily resurrection would have to occur to get them to carry on to identify an executed corpse together with the role of Messiah

About the belief in the bodily resurrection:

  • It’d be natural for Jews, who thought in a general revival of All of the rigtheous dead at the end of the age, to interpret a non-physical vision of one guy afterwards he died as a physical resurrection, Though no Jew had ever considered the revival of one person before the general resurrection before Jesus

About the testimony of these women:

  • Just because women were Unable to testify in courts of law (unless there were no male witnesses), the ancient church might still devise a narrative where the girls are the earliest witnesses
  • original, the disciples had fled the scene, so just the women were abandoned
  • also it would have been a Fantastic idea for the early church to devise women as the primary witnesses – the fact that they Couldn’t testify in court makes them ideal witnesses and incredibly persuasive
  • too, it’therefore good idea to devise girls as witnesses, because the Romans had a rule that stated that they never killed women, so they wouldn’t’ve killed these women – Romans just kill guys
  • in almost any case, the earliest witness to the empty tomb would be angel, therefore as long as people could Speak with the angel as being the first witness, that’s the best story to formulate

About the consensus of Christian scholars:

  • I’m not saying that Craig’s facts are incorrect, only that attractive to consensus Isn’t valid
  • he has to appeal to this proof, not the consensus

Regarding my naturalistic bias:

  • I really don ’t know or care if naturalism is true, allow ’s Examine the evidence

About the music genre of the gospels:

  • The creative story-telling is common in many genres, it’s ’s not a genre itself
  • things about Roman emperors also has imaginative story-telling

Concerning the legendary nature of the vacant tomb in Mark:

  • First, Christians translated the dreams as a bodily resurrection
  • Secondly, they invented the story of the empty tomb to go with that interpretation
  • Third, they died for their creation

William Lane Craig’s instant rebuttal

The burial:

  • Bill’s case doesn’t Have to know the specifics of the burial, only that the place was famous
  • that the place is important because it supports the empty tomb
  • to emphasise that a resurrection, the tomb would have to be vacant
  • a grave with a famous location is easier to assess

The empty tomb:

  • Ingenious story telling was common at Judaism: retelling OT stories (midrash), romances/novels, rabbinical anecdotes
  • however, the gospels are none of these genres – that the gospels are historical biographies
  • Craig also gave five arguments as to why the tomb was empty
  • the burial story supports the vacant tomb
  • there is multiple separate attestation, then it Cannot Be an ingenious fiction devised in Mark independently
  • the witnesses were at Jerusalem, therefore they were in a position to know
  • about the girls, even though Jesus admired the women, their testimony Wouldn’t be convincing to others, so why invent a narrative where they’re the witnesses
  • the male disciples didn’t flee the scene, for Instance, Peter wasn’t there to deny Jesus three times
  • when the story is composed, who cares what the man disciples did, just invent them on the spectacle anyway
  • the angel is not authoritative, since the angel cannot be contested, but the women can be contested
  • there was no response on the lack of embellishment
  • there wasn’t any response to the earliest Jewish response suggesting that the tomb was empty

The looks:

  • We concur on the looks

The early belief in the resurrection:

  • He states that Jesus called his own death
  • yes, but that would just make people to believe that he had been a martyr, not that he was the messiah – something else is needed for them to maintain their believe that he had been the Messiah even when he died, because the Messiah wasn’t assumed to die
  • and Needless to Say, there was no expectation of a single person rising from the dead before the general resurrection, and clearly not the Messiah

The validity of scholars:

  • Jewish scholars such as Geza Vermes and Pinchas Lapide accept these minimal details like the empty grave, it’s not only Christian scholars

Against Crossley’s hallucination hypothesis:

  • It doesn’t clarify the empty the tomb
  • that it doesn’t clarify the ancient belief in the revival
  • hallucinations could only lead into the notion that God had exalted/glorified Jesus, not that he was bodily raised from the dead
  • that the hallucination theory cannot accommodate all the different types of looks; individual, team, skeptic, enemy, etc..

The pre-supposition of naturalism:

  • If Crossley is not devoted to naturalism, then he Ought to Be open to the minimum facts as well as the best explanation for these details
  • the hallucination theory has too many problems
  • the revival hypothesis explains all, and well

James Crossley’s instant rebuttal

Religious pluralism:

  • Nicely, there are lots of other spiritual books
  • these other religious books have overdue resources, and are filled with legends and myths, without any eyewitness testimony
  • so why should people trust 1 Cor 15 as well as the early resource for Mark and the other early eyewitness testimony in the New Testament?
  • In case other spiritual books can be rejected for historic reasons, then the New Testament can be rejected for historical reasons


  • The genre of early biography can include and commonly incorporates invented legendaryt story-telling
  • this is common in Roman, Egyptian and Greek literature and everyone accepts that

Empty tomb: several attestation

  • Fine, so perhaps the empty tomb is multiply exemplified, but just gets back to some belief, not to a fact
  • multiple attestation is not the sole standards, and Craig Should use the other standards to make his case more powerful

Empty tomb: invented

  • When there’s a belief in the resurrection brought on by the dreams, then the empty tomb would have to be devised
  • why aren’t there more reliable stories of folks visiting the vacant tomb in more sources?

Empty tomb: function of the women

  • There are girls who have a significant part in the Bible, like Judith and Esther
  • Mark’s passage may have used girls who subsequently kept quiet in order to explain why no one knew where the vacant tomb was
  • if the fleeing of the men is plausible to explain the girls, then why don’t you use that? why appeal to the supernatural?
  • We should prefer any excuse That’s naturalistic even if It’s Not as Great as the unnatural explanation at describing everything

Empty tomb: embellishment

  • Nicely there is an angel there, which ’s an embellishment
  • anyway, if you say there isn’t any embellishment, what are you comparing it to that makes you say ?

Appearances: anthropology

  • That I ’ve read anthropology literature that has some cases where people have hallucinations as groups

Appearances: theology

  • The hallucinations Wouldn’t be interpreted against the background theological beliefs which ruled the revival of one man before then general resurrection of All of the righteous dead
  • these events might have been so compelling that they made Christians, and skeptics like James, and enemies such as the Pharisee Paul abandon all of their previous history beliefs, proclaim the new doctrine of a crucified and resurrected Messiah that nobody had ever anticipated, and then proceeded on to die for that belief
  • the hallucinations could have shifted All Their theology and reversed All Their beliefs regarding the what the word resurrection meant

William Lane Craig’s conclusion


  • Not one of the four facts are unnatural, they’re organic, and ascertained by historians utilizing ordinary historical approaches
  • the supernatural part just comes right after we determine on the facts when we are deciding which explanation is the best
  • a tomb being found empty Isn’t a miraculous fact


  • The gospels Aren’t analagous to these rabbinical stories, the purpose and relationship is different

Empty tomb:

  • What numerous attestation shows is that it Wasn’t made-up by Mark
  • along with the argument has been augmented with other criteria, such as the criterion of embarrassment and the standard of dissimilarity
  • Judith and Esther Are Extremely rare exceptions, commonly women Weren’t seen as trusted witnesses
  • when the story had been devised, whatever purpose that the inventors needed would’ve been better served by devising man witnesses
  • Craig grants which the angel may be an embellishment to the sake of argument, however there are no other embellishments
  • the actual embellishments occur in forged gnostic gospels in the second and third centuries, where you will find theological motifs added into this bare fact of the empty tomb (e.g. – the speaking cross in the Gospel of Peter)
  • he had no response to the oldest jewish response which indicated an empty tomb

Belief in the resurrection:

  • There was no means for Jewish people to translate an appearance because of physical resurrection before the end of the world, they didn’t expect that
  • they could have imagined exaltation, but maybe not a physical resurrection

James Crossley’s end

Supernatural explanation:

  • As long as there is any other other possible naturalistic explanation, we should favor that, no matter how improbable

Creative tales:

  • A Number of those ingenious stories appear inside the lifetimes of these people connected to the occasions (none mentioned)


  • You need to compare to previous stories when looking for embellishments, not later
  • and we don’t possess some previous resources, so we just don’t understand the extent of the embellishment

Jewish response:

  • They likely only heard of the empty grave, also didn’t check on it, then invented the stole-the-body explanation without checking to determine if the tomb was empty or not

Requiem for a Wicked Man

Godfried Danneels, Cardinal-Archbishop emeritus of All Mechlin-Brussels, died today in Mechlin.

The Great Elector of Francis has been a key figure of the abuse crisis (see here and here). As the towering figure of the St-Gallen Mafia, he was supporting both the autumn of Benedict XVI and the election of Francis.

Shall not the light of the wicked be extinguished, and the fire of his passion not glow?